APPENDICES

APPENDIX I

KOLABA ZILLA PARISHAD

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND.

LIKE THE GREEK CITY STATES, the villages in ancient India had always been autonomous. The characteristic feature of administration in ancient India was the prevalence of freedom and autonomy in governing the village institutions. In course of time the villages lost their autonomy as more power came to be vested and concentrated in the sovereign kings.

During the British Administration, some attempts were made to revive the Local Self-Government Institutions in India by giving them representations in such local bodies. As a result of this, subsequently, Municipalities, District School Boards and Taluka Local Boards came to be established. In the course of time Village Panchayats also came to be instituted.

Vidarbha organised its Gram Panchayats and Nyaya Panchayats in 1946 while in Marathwada region the Village Panchayats started functioning in every village with a population of 5,000 and above in 1941. After the reorganisation of the erstwhile Bombay State, the Village Panchayats Act was passed in 1958, for the whole State. The Act gave every district a Village Panchayat Mandal. Not only that but Gat-Nyaya Panchayats came to be organised for groups of five or more Village Panchayats.

In course of time the experience indicated that the progress of rural development was not commensurate with the expectations of the Government. Various developmental activities introduced in the various Plan periods could not achieve commendable success owing to non-participation of the villagers in the implementation of such schemes. The Central Government decided to investigate the causes behind such a state of affairs and appointed a Committee called ' Balwantrai Mehta Samiti '.

The 'Balwantrai Mehta Samiti' pointed out mainly, among other findings, that the Government could not succeed in appealing and in attracting the leadership of the masses in participating in the Community Development and National Development Schemes under the administrative set-up then in existence. The Samiti, therefore, suggested that the responsibility for such regional and local development works should be assigned to such local institutions at the district level with the Government accepting the role of guiding, supervising and planning from a higher level, making available the required finances and so on. The Samiti recommended the formation of local committees on par with Block Development Committees, to be named as Panchayat Samitis, and at the district level a district, committee to be called " Zilla Parishad ", instead of the Local Board. The Gram Panchayat, the Panchayat Samiti, and the Zilla Parishad are the three responsible functionaries in the decentralisation of administration, which are entrusted with the implementation of the development schemes. The Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act was passed in 1961. It provided for the formation of Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis. Local Government functions and the execution of certain works and development schemes of the State Five-Year Plans are entrusted to them. It provides for decentralisation of powers and functions and is expected to promote the development of democratic institutions by securing a greater measure of participation by people in Local Government affairs and development programme.

ORGANISATION OF THE ZILLA PARISHADS.

Under the new organisational set-up, provided for in the Act, every district will have a Zilla Parishad consisting of the President and Councillors. The entire set-up comprises the Zilla Parishad with its Standing and Subject Committees, Panchayat Samitis, Presiding Authorities, Chief Executive Officer, Block Development Officers and other officers. The Zilla Parishad will comprise various departments and the head of each department will be an officer belonging either to Class I or to Class II service of the. State Government.

The members of the Zilla Parishad will be directly elected and their number will not be less than forty or more than sixty. There would be one directly elected Councillor for not more than 35,000 of the population. If no woman is elected as a Councillor, one would be co-opted. Among the Councillors are also included, ex-officio Chairmen of Panchayat Samitis. The Chairmen of five federal co-operative societies at the district level are included as Associate Councillors. These societies, the Chairmen of which will be associated Councillors, will, as far as practicable, be such as to conduct business or activities in the district in relation to credit, land development, marketing, industrial co-operatives, and co-operative training and education. The term of office of the Councillors will generally be for five years. The President as well as the Vice-President of the Zilla Parishad will be elected by the Councillors from among themselves. The President will receive an honorarium of Rs. 500 per month with rent-free residential accommodation.

So far as Panchayat Samitis are concerned, every Block will have a Samiti and it will consist of elected and co-opted Councillors from the area of the Block, a Chairman of a co-operative society conducting the business of purchase and sale of agricultural produce as associate member, and a Chairman of a co-operative society conducting business in agriculture to be co-opted by the Samiti as associate member. If no female candidate is elected to the Samiti, one woman residing in the Block is to be co-opted by the Samiti. If there is no member belonging to scheduled castes or scheduled tribes, the Samiti is to co-opt one wherever Government prescribes such co-option. Sarpanchas from every electoral division of the Parishad are also to be included. Separate electoral college for the election of each Sarapanch member is to be formed. The Chairman of the Panchayat Samiti will be elected by the elected members of the Samiti from among themselves.

Every Zilla Parishad will have a Committee, each for Finance, Works, Agriculture, Co-operation, Education and Health. The Standing Committee of the Zilla Parishad will consist of the President, the Chairman of Subject Committees, seven Councillors elected by the Parishad and not more than two persons with experience and qualification co-opted as associate members. The Deputy Chief Executive Officer will be ex-officio Secretary of the Zilla Parishad and its Standing Committee. Each of the three Chairmen of the Subject Committees will draw an honorarium of Rs. 300 per month along with residential accommodation.

There will be a Chief Executive Officer and a Deputy Chief Executive Officer appointed by Government. The Chief Executive Officer is required to be withdrawn by Government if a Zilla Parishad passes a resolution to that effect by a two-third majority. There will also be a Block Development Officer for each Panchayat Samiti appointed by Government. The executive authority for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the legislation vests in the Chief Executive Officer and the Block Development Officer, respectively.

The magnitude of devolution of powers and responsibilities of the Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis made under the Maharashtra legislation is obvious when realised that almost the entire administrative and developmental machinery of Government within the district is transferred to the Zilla Parishads whose aggregate budgets are to the tune of about Rs. 50 crores as against Rs. 5 crores of the former local bodies. This devolution is without any reservation and such control as has actually been retained by Government, is the minimum necessary to ensure an efficient working of the Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis and to give guidance and effective direction to their activities. In the administrative sphere, a high water-mark has been reached in transferring the entire work of the village revenue officer, i.e., the talathi or patwari, to the Village Panchayat. On the development side, all district offices like the office of the District Agricultural Officer and the office of the District Health Officer are transferred from Government to the Zilla Parishads. The Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis enjoying autonomy in their development plans and budgets are kept free from interference. The responsibility for execution trickles down the line of local bodies from the Zilla Parishad to the Village Panchayat in a system in which each body tackles almost all matters which are confined to its area.

The executive machinery of the Zilla Parishad is headed by the Chief Executive Officer who is an Officer of the rank of a Collector. The various departments of the Zilla Parishad come under his co-ordinating authority with the result that the district plan of development pre-pared by the Zilla Parishad and the Panchayat Samitis come under a unified executive direction. The Executive Officers have mostly powers relating to day-to-day matters of routine needed for efficient execution of works and schemes, whereas substantial powers of financial sanction and administrative approval are vested in the Zilla Parishad, the Standing Committee, the Subject Committees, the Chairman of the Standing Committee and the Chairmen of Subject Committees in that order. The Zilla Parishad has power to revise the decision of any authority under it. The association of the elected representatives of the people is closely maintained with the day-to-day working of the Panchayat Raj bodies. All control exercised by the District Village Panchayat Mandal or the Collector under the Bombay Village Panchayats Act, 1958, over the Village Panchayats is now vested in the Zilla Parishads, its various authorities, and Panchayat Samitis. The Zilla Parishad, therefore, becomes mainly responsible for fostering the growth of Village Panchayats within the district. As the Village Panchayats provide the foundation of Panchayat Raj the Zilla Parishads are empowered to strengthen them to the best of their plan.

The Kolaba Zilla Parishad, as in other districts of the State, was established on May 1, 1962. It consists of 62 members. Of these, 48 are elected Councillors including six who are chairmen of the various Panchayat Samitis; eight are the members by virtue of their being Chairmen of various Panchayat Samitis, five associate members appointed by Government from federal co-operative societies and one co-opted woman Councillor.

The Zilla Parishad has been divided into six Subjects Committees along with the Standing Committee The Subjects Committees along-with the departments of the Zilla Parishad they control are as under: —

Subjects Committees

Department Controlled

Standing Committee

General Administration Department.

Finance Committee

Finance Department.

Education Committee

Education Department.

Co-operation Committee

Co-operation and Industries Department.

Agriculture Committee

Agriculture Department.

Works Committee

Works Department.

Health Committee

Health Department.

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT.

For the sake of administrative convenience the department that deals with the subjects of non-technical nature is divided into two branches, one under the Deputy Chief Executive Officer and the other under the Administrative Officer. The former branch is concerned with establishment, planning, parishad audit, registry, etc., while the latter is concerned with revenue, gram panchayats, social welfare and publicity, record, etc. Of these the revenue section is responsible for the collection of revenue from all kinds of sources of income of the Zilla Parishad such as land revenue, local fund cess, occupation cess, etc. The Panchayat section is to look after all the functions of former Panchayat Mandal, except the audit, for which the Collector of the district is responsible. The social welfare and publicity section looks after social welfare schemes, execution of schemes already implemented, publicity, functions pertaining to observation of days of national and "historical importance, etc. The record section is to look after matters such as maintaining dead stock record, problems of accommodation of the employees of the Zilla Parishad, etc.

FINANCE DEPARTMENT.

The officer-in-charge of the department is the Chief Accounts and Finance Officer. For the sake of administrative convenience the department has been divided into Accounts, Budget, Audit, Stores, Inspection and Registry branches. The clause 137 of the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961, entails upon the, Zilla Parishad and every Panchayat Samiti to prepare their annual budgets. After the budgets are approved by the Zilla Parishad, the Finance department is responsible for the allocation of finances according to the budgetary grants and regulates the expenditure as prescribed by the rules thereunder. There is a separate Inspection branch which audits the accounts of every Panchayat Samiti every three months. The budget estimates of the Zilla Parishad for the year 1962-63 show an income of Rs. 1,04,17,250 and an expenditure of Rs. 1,17,94,030 leaving a deficit of Rs. 13,76,780. It is, however, stipulated under clause 184 of the Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961, that for a period of five years, subsequent to the inception of the Zilla Parishad, the budgetary deficits, if any, will be made good by the State Government through grants-in-aid.

PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT.

The Department is under the control of the Health Committee of the Zilla Parishad and the Health Officer of the Zilla Parishad works as its ex-officio Secretary.

The District Health Officer with headquarters at Pen is the administrative head of the Public Health department. He is assisted by two Epidemic Medical Officers and the necessary staff. The department has under its jurisdiction 17 dispensaries, eight primary health centres and 28 subsidised medical practitioners' centres. There are in addition six sanitary squads whose duty is to educate the people in the methods of hygiene and adopt anti-epidemic measures in times of epidemics. The Health department is concerned with checking of vital statistics, family-planning (on agency basis), public health, prevention of epidemics, eradication of leprosy, etc. These tasks are carried out by the primary health centres which cover an area with an average population of 60,000. Of these eight primary health centres, the centres at Karjat, Khopoli and Nagothana have received medical equipment including a jeep from the UNICEF. Every centre maintains for the execution of its work, necessary staff and also provides facilities for imparting instructions to the public at large to carry out the work undertaken by the department.

Child and Mother Welfare Centres are maintained at Pali, by Sudhagad Panchayat Samiti; and at Mangaon and Goregaon, by Mangaon Panchayat Samiti. Family Planning Centres are situated at Khopoli, Karjat, Nagothana and Nere. Leprosy treatment units are established at Alibag, Shrivardhan (Jasawali), Mahad and Roha (Nagothana). Vaccination centres have also been established in all the talukas.

In addition there are Assistant Health Observers at Karjat, Khalapur, pen, Uran and Poladpur. Besides these activities the department also does considerable work at the time of occurrence of epidemics and diseases. The local public health officers are authorised to carry out the necessary preventive remedies in such cases. The department has also started a centre for the eradication of malaria. To root out leprosy, an additional leprosy subsidiary centre has been opened at Pen, jurisdiction of which extends over Pen and Khalapur talukas.

Primary health centres have been established at Karjat, Nere, Nagothana, Khopoli, Nizampur, Jasawali and Borlai Mandla, dispensaries at Karjat, Apte, Vodhi, Revdanda, Pedhambe, Nagothana, Khalapur, Pali, Shirvali, Borlai Panchtan, Kudgaon, Borlai Mandla, Khamgaon and Medadi and subsidised medical practitioners' centres at Kashele, Nandgaon, Kalamb, Vaijanath, Gavan, Sai, Nere, Vadhav, Kalve, Ramraj, Pezari, Kurdus, Jamgaon, Kok-ban, Ghosale, Vavoshi, Ambivali, Mohopada, Jambiwali, Varandh, Valan and Bagmandle.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.

The Education Department of the Zilla Parishad has to look after matters concerning education in the district. It is controlled by the Education Committee of the Zilla Parishad with the Education Officer as its Secretary. He is also the administrative head of the department. The schools are inspected and supervised by the Deputy Education Officer and the Assistant Deputy Education Officer. There are 1,408 primary schools in the district giving education to about 1,40,000 students including 13,000 belonging to backward classes. There are 576 Basic Schools of which 55 schools with 1,397 students impart training in sutakatai, 102 with 19, 470 students in spinning and weaving, 11 with 1,468 students in gardening and agriculture, 13 with 764 pupils in paper work, 44 with 4,789 students in carpentry and 351 with 18,472 students in miscellaneous basic crafts.

Of the primary schools, 685 are housed in premises owned by the Zilla Parishad, 190 in premises taken on rental basis and 486 in premises, free use of which has been allowed by the villagers. Between 1946 and 1961, 307 new buildings with 771 rooms have been constructed at a cost of Rs. 22,77,330 of which Rs. 5,81,149 have been contributed by the villagers either through Shramadan or through cash donations. The Government grant amounted to Rs. 16,96,181. Of the total number of schools, 587 have the facility of play-grounds.

Hostels for backward class students have been opened at Nagothana, Khalapur, Nate, Mahad, Murud, Khopoli, Kalamb and Neral where there are in all 117 students. The yearly expenditure upon these hostels comes to about Rs. 30,000. The annual expenditure on education comes to about Rs. 45,00,000.

The executive supervision and inspection of middle schools in the district is the responsibility of the Education Officer of the Zilla Parishad. There are in all 51 middle schools (45 Marathi medium, 5 Urdu medium and 1 Gujarati medium). The Government Commercial High School has been attached to Industrial High School, Alibag; Government technical training centre to Paranjape High School, Mahad and Arts sections to Private High School, Pen and V. K. High School, Panvel. Of the 51 middle schools, 30 are up to S.S.C. standard. The A. I. Agricultural School at Murud is the only agricultural vocational school in the district. All the schools are housed in their own premises except Sir S. A. High School at Murud which is housed in the premises formerly owned by the Janjira State and now transferred to the State Government. The Government charges only a nominal rent for the premises.

These institutions used to receive grants-in-aid from the Department of Education. Since the formation of the Zilla Parishad the work has been transferred to the Parishad.

For visual education, there is one cine projector in the district. There are 19 A.C.C. corps in 19 middle schools in the district. National Discipline Scheme has been introduced in seven middle schools for which nine instructors have been appointed. There are three boy-scout corps in three middle schools in the district. There is one S.T.C. training class and two Government and one non-Government Training Colleges in the district. The village education schemes have also been introduced in the district. On June 30, 1962 there were 2,240 village education classes, the benefit of which was being taken by 11,135 males and 9,890 females. Up to 1962, 3,408 males and 1,534 females have been benefited by the scheme. The executive control of the village libraries vests in the Deputy Education Officer. There are 64 such libraries in the district which are inspected by the Deputy and the Assistant Deputy Education Officers. These 64 libraries are distributed taluka/Mahal-wise as under: —

Alibag 15; Pen 6; Panvel 4; Uran 6; Karjat 1; Khalapur 4; Sudhagad' 1; Roha 2; Murud 2; Shrivardhan 3; Mhasla 1; Mangaon 10 and Mahad 9.

AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT.

The District Agricultural Officer is the head of the department in the district and has to act as the Secretary to the Agriculture Committee of the Zilla Parishad which controls the work of the department in the district. The animal husbandry activities in the district are also under the control of the Agriculture department but the actual control vests in the District Animal Husbandry Officer.

The department has undertaken several schemes to augment the production of rice, betelnut, coconut, mangoes,' cashewnut, jack-fruit, etc., which are the main crops of the region. With this in view the Agriculture department has opened an agricultural school at Roha. The study course is of two years and every year 30 students are admitted to the course. Every student is paid a stipend of Rs. 20 per month.

Every year crop competitions are conducted at village level, taluka level, district level and State level by the Agriculture department so as to encourage agriculturists to grow more. In the year 1961-62, 3,020 agriculturists from 302 villages took part in the competition at village level, 250 agriculturists from 10 talukas at taluka level and 24 agriculturists at district level. There was no entrant from the district at State level competition.

The work of protecting the crops from pests and diseases is also under-taken by the department. The measures taken by the department brought the damage to the minimum from Tudtudya in 1960-61. Agriculturists in Karjat taluka were supplied in the same year with pumps on rent by the department for spraying copper fungicide to control bacterial blight.

Paddy cultivation scheme has been introduced in Panvel, Khalapur, Uran and Karjat talukas of the district since 1957-58. According to the scheme an agriculturist is provided with super-phosphate and sulphate manures and Rs. 70 each towards the expenditure for cultivation. The experiments in Japanese paddy cultivation carried out at Panvel proved to be successful and now these are extended to Roha and Alibag talukas. The department also supplied improved seeds which resulted in the increase in production by 10 per cent to 12 per cent. The department proposes to have warehouses for each taluka. Up to 1962 such storing facilities have been provided for at Karjat, Khalapur and Murud. It also undertakes the programme for animal husbandry, and breeding. There are 12 taluka hospitals (one each for every taluka), three dispensaries and 24 veterinary centres in the district. These hospitals and dispensaries are looked after by eight veterinary officers and 31 stock-men. The department has opened a poultry demonstration centre at Karjat. The agriculturists are supplied with chickens up to the age of six months at reasonable prices and they are instructed in the proper ways of poultry-farming. Hens of improved breed and unhatched eggs will be provided from these centres henceforth. The department pro-poses to open a district poultry-breeding centre at Kon in Panvel taluka. It is also proposed to attach a poultry unit to every taluka dispensary.

Pen has been selected as a site to establish an artificial insemination centre from where the semen of breeding bulls will be supplied to all the talukas. It is proposed to open artificial insemination sub-centres at Pali and Alibag. It is also proposed to give the agriculturists grant-in-aid towards purchase or maintenance of dangi bulls.

WORKS DEPARTMENT.

All the construction activities in the district are the responsibility of the Parishad Engineer in charge of the Buildings and Communications Department of the district. For the administrative convenience the district has been divided into four zones each under the control of a Deputy Engineer. The Zilla Parishad has a road mileage of 891 under its charge (702 miles transferred by District Local Board and 189 miles transferred by Buildings and Communications Department of the State).

The department has undertaken immediate repairs of aqueducts on Tala-Indapur road, Goregaon-Mhasla road and Shrivardhan-Dighi road. Major works numbering 27 have been undertaken by the department. Due to heavy downpour Roha-Murud road, Roha-Nagothana road, Mangaon-Nizampur road and Salon-Talehar road were rendered unserviceable. They were repaired immediately before traffic dislocation could take place.

 The following works which were included in the Second Five-Year Plan have been completed: —

(1) Part from Kashala to Kalamb of Kashala-Kalamb-Murbad Road.

(2) Part from Kashala to Pathraj of Kashala-Khandas Road.

(3) Part from Roha to Usar of Roha-Murud Road.

(4) Part from Gophan to Chanera of Roha-Murud Road.

(5) Ambet-Purar Road.

(6) Veterinary dispensary at Pali.

(7) Veterinary dispensary at Chaneri.

The following are under way: —

(8) Goregaon-Phalani Road.

(9) Part from Siddheshwar to Nandgaon of Pali-Bhira Road.

(10) Part from Pathraj to Khandas of Kashala-Khandas Road.

(11) Part of Shahapur-Khutal-Murbad-Karjat-Chauk Road.

(12) Neral-Kalamb Road.

(13) Purar-Medhegaon Road.

(14) Lonera-Goregaon Road.

(15) Khamgaon-Mhasla Road.

(16) Part from Chaware to Nidi of Alibag-Roha Road.

(17) Part from Sudkoli to Chaware of Alibag-Roha Road.

(18) Part from Balkade to Borghar of Alibag-Roha Road.

(19) Part from Kharpada to Kavade of Kharpada-Savoroli Road.

The following works which were included in the Second Five-Year Plan are yet to be undertaken: —

(20) Bridge on Ambet-Purar Road.

(21) Aqueducts on Ambet-Purar Road.

(22) Veterinary dispensary at Tala.

(23) Phalani-Khamgaon Road.

(24) Mhasla-Shrivardhan Road.

(25) Part from Nandgaon to Bhira of Pali-Bhira Road.

(26) C. D. Works on Vadawali-Dahiwali-Morabe-Goregaon Road.

(27) Part from Panvel to Neral of Panvel-Matheran Road.

(28) Pezari-Shahapur-Dherang Road.

(29) Bridge on the Kundalika over Pali-Bhira Road.

(30) Bridge over the Kal on Nizampur-Patnus Road.

The Third Five-Year Plan envisages the following constructional activities: —

(1) Improvements on Alibag-Revdanda Road.

(2) Construction of part from Chancra to Nandgaon of Roha-Murud Road.

(3) Improvements on Mhasla-Mendadi-Wadhawali Road.

(4) Construction of Jasawali-Ranawali-Jareshwar Bagmandle Road.

(5) Construction of Mahad-Dapoli Road via Latwan.

(6) Improvements on Mahad-Mhapral Road.

(7) Construction of Nagothana-Poynad Road.

(8) Improvements on Shrivardhan-Wadhwali-Dighi Road.

(9) Construction of Mhasla-Morabe-Mangaon Road.

(10) Construction of Poladpur-Nagaon Road via Katetali.

(11) Improvements on Dand-Turade Road.

(12) Improvements on Apta-Kharpada Road.

(13) Construction of part from Vangani to Karjat of Kalyan-Ambarnath-Karjat Road.

(14) Improvement of Uran-Panvel Road.

(15) Improvement of Chauk Karjat Road.

(16) Improvement of Mahad-Raygad Road.

(17) Improvement of Mahad-Vinhere Road.

(18) Improvement of Mahad-Turade Road.

(19) Construction of Belapur-Tabaja-Chinghare Road.

(20) Construction of Bhimashankar-Nandgaon-Kalamb-Karjat Road.

(21) Construction of Vakan-Umret Road.

(22) Construction of part from Patnus to Bhira of Pali-Bhira Road.

(23) Construction of Kapda-Devle Road.

(24) Construction of Wahan-Devghar Road.

(25) Improvement of Tala-Indapur Road.

Co-OPERATION AND INDUSTRIES DEPARTMENT.

The Co-operation and Industries Department of the Zilla Parishad is headed by the Co-operation and Industries Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He also works as the Secretary of the Co-operation Committee of the Zilla Parishad which controls the department.

Kolaba district suffers from various handicaps such as an acute short-age of water-supply for about six months of the year, shortage of power, predominance of forests and general industrial and agricultural backwardness. The heavy odds can only be overcome by co-operative endeavour.

Need for co-operative endeavour to overcome the heavy odds was felt and by April 1962, 790 co-operative societies were formed in the district. These co-operative societies cover 1,742 villages out of 1,776 villages in the district.

The District Central Co-operative Bank which functions as the bank to the Zilla Parishad started functioning from October 1, 1961, has 10 branches. It is proposed to open branches at Mahad, Poladpur, Sudhagad (Pali) and Mhasla.

The number of agricultural credit co-operative societies stood at 524 (1961) with a membership of 53,992, total capital at Rs. 25,48,000 and. reserve funds at Rs. 6,42,000. These banks disbursed Rs. 42,16,000 by way of loans as against Rs. 32,72,000 given to them. These banks had a working capital of Rs. 66,52,000. The amount of loans out-standing stood at Rs. 9,06,000.

There were 12 sales and purchase societies in the district with a membership of 2,785 on their register. Their share capital was only Rs. 1,04,000 making their working very difficult.

Twenty-one societies were formed by the employees including; those of the urban banks in the district. Of the 10 co-operative farming societies in the district four are collective farming societies. All the three water-supply societies in the district had closed their functioning and were on way to liquidation. Three co-operative societies were instituted for the lands donated in bhoodan with all the members belonging to scheduled tribes. These societies are known as Gram Swarajya Samsthas. These samsthas have received Rs. 2,000 each from the Government as grant-in-aid. The milk-supply co-operative societies in the district numbered 16 of which one was a representative society. These societies were spread in Karjat and Khalapur talukas only and were established with a view to supplying milk to Worli Dairy Farm at Bombay. These societies have received a loan of Rs. 1,35,000 towards the purchase of buffaloes.

There were 14 co-operative housing societies in the district of which 11 were formed by people belonging to backward classes, one by industrial labourers and two by middle class population. Of the two societies formed by middle class population, one at Panvel is progressing well and is constructing houses from its funds. The second one at Karjat has procured land recently but no construction work has commenced. The co-operative housing society of industrial workers is recently registered. Of the remaining 11 societies of back-ward class people, five have received financial and other assistance from the Government and they have finished their projected construction.

There were 118 industrial co-operative societies in the district including 44 forest labourers' societies.

Of 27 warehouses proposed in the district, 19 have already been constructed while the construction is under way in case of the remaining eight.

SOCIAL WELFARE DEPARTMENT.

The social welfare activities in the district are looked after by the Social Welfare Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He is responsible to the Deputy Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad as social welfare forms a branch of the General Administration department. He has to carry out these activities under the over-all guidance from the department at the State sector.

Of the total backward class population of 10,58,892 according to the 1961 census, 56,296 were (harijans) scheduled castes and 92,584 were (adivasis) scheduled tribes. A vast proportion of the latter could be found in Karjat, Khalapur, Roha and Sudhagad talukas of the district. They were also spread in Alibag and Mahad talukas. There were only 144 persons belonging to Vimukta jatis (criminal tribes). For the economic and social uplift of these castes many development schemes have been drawn. Such schemes and the work done under them in the district is described below: —

The scheme envisages to give free education and to provide for scholarships to these backward classes with a view to bringing them to the level of other advanced communities. During the Second and the Third Plan periods 645 students belonging to the backward classes are to be benefited by the scheme. The classification as backward clasess based on castes and communities was changed on the basis of economic conditions in 1959-60. From 1959-60, all the students, the income of whose parents was less than Rs. 900 a year, got free education. During the same year 360 students from the district received benefits to the extent of Rs. 1,361.25. In 1960-61 the limit was raised to Rs. 1,200 a year and 4,870 students in the district took advantage to the extent of Rs. 3,06,996.60. In case of students belonging to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and vimukta jatis concession in fees is granted to all such students who have failed only once in their examination and income of whose parents is below Rs. 2,400 per year.

The population belonging to scheduled tribes especially and scheduled castes and vimukta jatis generally stays at a far-off distance from educational centres and if the students belonging to these communities want to educate themselves they have to stay in hostels which, generally, they cannot afford due to their poor economic conditions. To overcome these difficulties the backward class wing of the Social Welfare Department gives grant-in-aid of Rs. 200 per year towards the lodging and boarding of each student to the approved hostels. Besides this, each student is paid 50 per cent of the expenditure that he has to incur towards house rent and other expenses. The hostels for scheduled tribes are being conducted at Neral and Khandas in Karjat taluka and at Pen, for scheduled castes at Pali and Mangaon by giving grant-in-aid to the local institutions. The advantage of these institutions is taken of by 81 male students belonging to scheduled tribes, 70 belonging to scheduled castes and 19 other male students and 33 female students. A separate building to house the hostel has been constructed at Neral towards the cost of which the Social Welfare Department has contributed Rs. 17,200 as grant-in-aid. A grant-in-aid of equal amount has been sanctioned to the hostel at Khandas also. Similar grants of varying amounts have been sanctioned to Shri Sant Vinoba Bhave Chhatralaya, Pali, Adivasi Chhatralaya, Pen and Dr. Ambedkar Chhatralaya, Mangaon, the construction of the buildings of which is in progress.

The scheme also envisages the supply of hens and milch cattle to scheduled tribes and vimukta jatis. Accordingly.77 scheduled tribe persons were paid Rs. 600 during 1960-61 and Rs. 1,100 during 196162 towards purchase and rearing of hens and milch cattle so as to provide them with supplementary occupation. Agricultural bulls are also supplied free of cost to the agriculturists belonging to scheduled tribes and vimukta jatis. During 1960-61, 8 persons from Khalapur, Roha and Sudhagad talukas belonging to scheduled tribes were given a grant-in-aid of Rs. 1,500 towards the supply of farm bulls. For the same purpose, 25 scheduled tribe families were given Rs. 6,000. According to another scheme, in 1961-62 the agriculturists belonging to scheduled tribes were given Rs. 988.79 as grant-in-aid towards the purchase of improved seeds which is generally equal to 50 per cent of the total expenditure incurred for the purpose. In 1961-62, two agriculturists in the backward areas benefited under the scheme under which an agriculturist cultivating one acre of Varkas land and 4 acres of rice land is paid Rs. 2,000 and Rs. 1,000 towards the purchase of oil-engines in the economically backward areas. Under another scheme they are supplied with agricultural implements and 49 persons have benefited to the extent of Rs. 1,500 in 1961-62. The department also gives an aid of Rs. 300 comprising Rs. 150 as loan and Rs. 150 as grant-in-aid towards the purchase of cows and buffaloes to the needy persons belonging to scheduled tribes and vimukta jatis. In 1960-61, the department spent Rs. 1,500 on this item. The department also gives financial assistance towards the purchase of bullock-carts. In 1961-62, 11 persons received an assistance of Rs. 3,500 for the purpose. The scheduled caste persons are given each Rs. 300 of which Rs. 150 forms grant-in-aid and Rs. 150 loans to be repaid after 15 months in 50 instalments. In 1959-60, 4 persons, in 196061, 5 persons and in 1961-62, 7 persons received Rs. 1,200, Rs. 1,400 and Rs. 750, respectively, as assistance. This facility can be availed of by persons belonging to scheduled tribes also. But in their case they have to repay the loan after 18 months. In 1960-61, 5 persons got an assistance of Rs. 1,100 and in 1961-62, 12 persons, of Rs. 1,100.

The families belonging to scheduled castes and tribes also get assistance and loans not only in agricultural pursuit but for cottage industries also. The financial assistance by way of loan up to 75 per cent, and assistance of 25 per cent is given to tailors, pan shopkeepers, pipers, umbrella-repairers, brick-makers, hawkers and transport workers. The loan is to be repaid after 18 months in 50 instalments. The advantage of this scheme was taken of by 11 persons belonging to scheduled castes who were paid in aggregate Rs. 2,000 in 1960-61. In 1961-62, 10 persons belonging to scheduled tribes and two persons belonging to vimukta jatis took advantage of the scheme. The aggregate expenditure on the same during that period came to Rs. 1,000.

To put a stop to the existing practice of clearing human waste the department gives a grant-in-aid of 75 per cent of the expenditure for the purchase of hand-carts or wheel-barrows to the municipalities and village panchayats. In case of those municipalities in whose case the income exceeds Rs. one lakh per year, the grant is limited to 50 per cent of the expenditure on this behalf. In 1958-59, Pen and Uran municipalities received Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 600, respectively, on this account. Roha-Ashtami municipality and Khopoli village panchayat also received a grant of Rs. 600 each for the purchase of wheel-barrows.

Generally people belonging to scheduled tribes stay in the hilly regions and very rarely do they come in contact with civilised parts. That contributes to their backwardness. The department gives grant-in-aid for the construction of small bridges, aqueducts and sakus to the organisers who undertake the work so as to facilitate their contracts with the civilized world. The grant-in-aid given in this behalf in 1959-60, 1960-61, and 1961-62 amounted to Rs. 15,000, Rs. 46,964 and Rs. 42,600, respectively.

The.' abolition of untouchability' week is observed throughout the State since 1958. Two prizes are awarded to the first two villages that have done the best work in this behalf. In 1961-62 the first prize was shared by Pabhare in Mhasla Peta and Pimpalbhat in Alibag taluka and the second prize was awarded to Pali in Sudhagad taluka.

The caste system is deep rooted in Hindu minds. One of the ways to eradicate the caste system is marriages between the caste Hindus and scheduled caste Hindus which will definitely be a step forward. The Government encourages such marriages and spends Rs. 300 at the time of reception during such marriages. In 1960-61, one such marriage took place in Kolaba district for the reception of which the Government paid Rs. 300. One more step that the Government proposes to take towards the eradication of untouchability is to encourage caste Hindu landlords to rent their premises to scheduled castes. If there is any such landlord, he gets 50 per cent of the house rent as aid from the Government. In 1960-61, Rs. 42.50 were distributed as aid to such landlords. They were also given an additional aid of Rs. 250.

So as to give good cultural training to the children belonging to the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and vimukta jatis, Balwadis are established which receive grant-in-aid. Such a Balzvadi had been established at Pali in Sudhagad taluka in 1959. During 1961-62, it received a grant-in-aid of Rs. 1,759.75. During the same period the number of students stood at 24 (15 males+ 9 females). The Kolaba Zilla Adivasi Seva Mandal has established a Balzvadi at Dahigaon in Sudhagad taluka. It received a grant-in-aid of Rs. 668.75 in 1961-62. Forty-one Balwadis have been established at different places under the guidance of the Social Welfare department in different development blocks. Samskar kendras have also been established at Alibag during 1958-59 and at Pali in Sudhagad taluka in 1960-61. Up to 1962, Rs. 2,873.33 have been spent over these samskar kendras. Another samskar kendra for the children belonging to vimukta jatis received a grant-in-aid of Rs. 2,593 during 1961-62. These samskar kendras provide training facilities in tailoring and embroidering elong with the medical facilities. Though the samskar kendra is meant for vimukta jatis the advantage is taken of by the children belonging to all the communities. The families belonging to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and vimukta jatis are provided such medicines free of cost as are not available in a Government dispensary. In 1961-62, the expenditure incurred in this behalf by the department amounted to Rs. 300. They are also given financial assistance if they have to undertake travels for medical attention. For this purpose the department spent Rs. 100 in 1961-62.

Many schemes for the housing of the families belonging to scheduled tribes have also been drawn up by the department. According to one scheme the department gives financial assistance of Rs. 750 to a family which is ready to add Rs. 250 either by way of cash or by way of Shramadan so that the value of the house should be Rs-. 1,000. From 1956-57 to 1961-62, 345 houses have been constructed for which the Government aid came to Rs. 2,63,375 for scheduled tribe families. For scheduled castes also, 41 houses have been constructed through the grant of about Rs. 10,000 during 1958-59 and 1961-62. Under the same scheme a model housing colony will also be established for both scheduled castes as well as scheduled tribes. At Vavloli in Sudhagad taluka 15 families belonging to scheduled tribes will form a model colony. They are being supplied with agricultural land, bullocks, seeds and agricultural implements, etc. A co-operative society has also been formed by them. The department also gives an aid up to Rs. 100 to the families belonging to scheduled tribes. In 1961-62, 66 families belonging to scheduled castes received financial assistance to the tune of Rs. 6 000.

Generally the district faces an acute water shortage. It is, at times, necessary to fetch water from a distance of about two miles. To provide adequate drinking-water facilities twenty wells have been constructed at a cost of Rs. 44,638.75 in the district. Of these ten wells have been constructed in the backward areas at a cost of Rs. 8,750.

A shelter house for destitute women run at Panvel by the department accommodates 25 women.

So as to seek employment for scheduled castes and tribes and other backward communities, their names are enrolled in Zilla Parishad. Out of 310 registered so far, 64 were provided with jobs.

It is expected that all schemes described above will lead to amelioration of backward class communities.

PANCHAYAT SAMITIS.

Besides the departments of the Zilla Parishad, the Panchayat Samitis formed at the Block level have to undertake the development activities in their respective Blocks. In what follows is given a short description of development works carried out in these Blocks.

KARJAT BLOCK.

The Development Block started at Karjat on October 2, 1952 was turned into its second intensive phase on October 1, 1956. In Karjat taluka 850 acres of uncultivable land was brought under cultivation by using bulldozers. Additional land of 200 acres was also brought under cultivation by way of Shramadan. The agriculturists in the Block were given Rs. 22,191 as tagai. The Rajanala Irrigation Project costing about Rs. 16 lakhs will irrigate 3,300 acres of land which will lead to an increase in the production of rice by one and a quarter lakhs of B. maunds worth Rs. 18 lakhs. In the experimental rice cultivation scheme are included 103 villages and 12 co-operative societies. Under the cashewnut development scheme, Rs. 2,900 have been distributed as tagai. The co-operative societies were paid Rs. 16,800 towards the purchase of agricultural implements and Rs. 10,000 were distributed by way of tagai to milk suppliers. A long-term loan of Rs. 1,30,000 was granted to Karjat Village Panchayat towards the supply of electricity for milk scheme.

A veterinary dispensary has been started at Karjat along with sub-centres at Neral, Kalamb, Kashe and Kondiwade. For breeding purposes a few dangi bulls were supplied to agriculturists. A poultry farm has also been established at Karjat. The development of fisheries (fish farms) has been undertaken in 16 tanks in the Block thus creating a new avenue of revenue to the village panchayats in the Block.

In the Block, steps are being taken to put an end to the oppression by money-lenders. The agriculturists are supplied loans in various forms such as manures, seeds, etc. There are 59 co-operative societies in the Block. The number of multi-purpose and service societies in the Block, stands at 32 with a membership of 5,200. These societies supply credit to the tune of Rs. 10 lakhs a year. The Government loan and aid of Rs. 74,000 received by nine societies was utilized towards the construction of warehouses. These societies got 8,070 B. maunds of rice against the credit which they had supolied during the last year. It helps towards sale of rice to the benefit of the agriculturist. The Government have contributed Rs. 61,520 towards the share capital of 12 multi-purpose societies. Nine societies have received a loan of Rs. 25,700 for the construction of grain depots for scheduled tribes (adivasis). Twelve multi-purpose co-operative societies under experimental rice cultivation scheme have supplied credit to the tune of Rs. 5 lakhs by way of cash loans and manure supply. Agricultural implements have been supplied to 12 co-operatives. The Government gives cash grants to the societies in paddy pilot scheme towards their establishment and warehousing expenditure. Four dairies and a district milk producers' association have been established with a view to augmenting supply of milk on co-operative basis. Three adivasi forest labour co-operative societies with a membership of 400 have received Rs. 3,000 each as Government contribution. The first co-operative umbrella production centre in Maharashtra has been established in the Block which produces about 5,000 umbrellas per year. It has a membership of 28 and a share capital of Rs. 3,650. A co-operative cart-manufacturing society, tailoring society and a leather workers' society have been working in full swing. In the Block, 105 schools have been constructed at a cost of Rs. 3,96,732. Each school has been supplied with requisite materials worth Rs. 320. The construction of 115 schools is under way. Adult education classes are conducted in 20 villages. The children's associations in the district received Rs. 90 each as grant from Government. The Block has 33 libraries including 11 mobile libraries.

To remove the acute water scarcity in the region, 54 new wells were constructed and 25 old ones repaired. Construction of 23 roads was undertaken of which 15 have been completed. Sakus were constructed at Kalamb, Neral and Pangalas and bunds at Kalamb, Tamnath and Neral. A building to site the primary health centre and maternity home was constructed at Karjat at a cost of Rs. 34,000.

MURUD BLOCK.

This Block also aims at development in agriculture and with this in view, 269 B. maunds of improved seeds, 1,372 B. maunds of chemical fertilizers and 71 improved agricultural implements were distributed in the block. There was one veterinary dispensary in the Block and one poultry farm. One school and a basic school were opened in the Block. In the Block were working 40 youth associations, 50 agriculturists' associations, 16 women's associations, 30 bhajan associations and one drama association. There were 13 libraries along with 17 radio sets installed in the Block. Since the establishment of the block 746 illiterate adults received education through 109 adult education classes. The total number of co-operative societies in the Block was 20 of which five were industrial co-operatives, 5 multi-purpose co-operatives, one consumers' co-operative, four service societies, two fishing societies, one housing society and one co-operative union.

MANGAON BLOCK.

In this Block crop competition was held only at the village level with only four villages participating in it in 1961-62. Attempts were made to produce better quality fertilizers, both chemical and ordinary. Improved quality seeds were also distributed. Varkas land measuring 400 acres was brought under cultivation, bunding was done over 20,000 acres and cashewnut was planted over 1,500 acres.

In the Block 159 backward class students received scholarships worth Rs. 2,892. The hostel for backward class pupils in the Block was situated at Mangaon.

Many attempts were made towards economic development of back-ward classes. The backward class population at Mauje Medhe and Katkari population (a scheduled tribe) at Nibi were provided with two bullocks and four milch goats. To improve the existing communications a road is under construction from Nibi to Indapur.

 In the Block, 20 schools have been constructed at a cost of Rs. 25,000. Towards the purchase of requisite materials for the middle schools at Indapur and Talashet, Rs, 1,250 have been sanctioned.

A cottage hospital has been opened at Mangaon along with a dispensary at Shiravali. They are supplemented by three subsidised medical practitioner centres in the Block. A primary health centre has been inaugurated at Nizampur. The co-operative societies cover a population of 5,000 and have provided credit worth Rs. 3,62,000.

PANVEL BLOCK.

In Panvel Block 116 construction works were undertaken comprising 61 school buildings, 2 veterinary dispensaries, 6 libraries and Panchayat offices, 3 roads, 2 sakus, 30 wells and tanks, 2 samaj mandirs and 10 quarters for gram sevaks. Of these, 47 works have been completed. The primary health centre has been established at Nere and the construction of the building for the same is under way. It is also proposed to construct quarters to house the staff of the Block. A warehouse for storing seeds, fertilizers and manures has also been proposed. Besides, financial assistance has been given to libraries Rs. 2,023.08; youth associations, Rs. 1,766.41; Bhajan associations, Rs. 3,660.89 and women's associations, Rs. 4,416.64. In the Block, five gas plants received subsidy of Rs. 700 each from the Government.

Besides the activities mentioned above many other developmental activities have also been started in the block.

SHRIVARDHAN BLOCK.

Much work for the improvement of agriculture has been done in the Block including distribution of fertilizers. The taluka agriculturists' association along with 80 other agriculturists' associations with a membership of 2,344 try to improve the lot of agriculturists. In the crop competition 270 agriculturists participated at village level, 61 at taluka level and 2 at district level. Agricultural exhibitions were held at Hareshwar and Shrivardhan thrice. A provision of Rs. 6,000 has been made for poultry farming also.

To improve water-supply, 12 new wells have been constructed and 11 old ones were repaired. Under schemes to improve agriculture and irrigation 64 oil-engines have been distributed and installed which irrigate 160 acres of land. Wells also irrigate 12 acres.

Seven adult literacy classes and two libraries were the educational institution in the Block. The advantage of the information centre was taken of on an average by about 250 persons per day. Short courses of three months' duration in tailoring were conducted at Dive Agar and Borli Panchatan, the advantage of which was taken by 60 females. The number at Shrivardhan was 36. The carpentry class at Shrivardhan trained 15 students. Training classes in leather works and cane work at Shrivardhan and Bora trained 13 and 14 students, respectively.

MAHAD BLOCK.

The pre-extension Block at Mahad was started on October 2, 1959 At present (1962) it is a stage I Block.

The number of co-operative societies which was 26 inclusive of 19 agricultural credit and multi-purpose societies, 4 industrial societies and 3 miscellaneous societies in 1959 rose to 52 comprising 43 agricultural credit and multi-purpose societies, 5 industrial societies and 4 miscellaneous societies in 1962. There is an increase in membership, share capital and credit supply also with the increase in the number of societies. Birth control and vasectomy camps were conducted in the Block, the benefit of which was taken by 115 persons. Fourteen radio sets were installed in the Block. Attempts were made towards the amelioration of backward classes. Construction of wells and roads was also under-taken in the Block.

Primary health centres have been proposed to be established at Birwadi and Dasgaon with sub-centres at Varandh, Mangrun and, Vinhere and Nate Konzar and Telange respectively, from development grants. A branch veterinary dispensary will be established at Birwadi with stockmen at Konzar and Vinhere. It is proposed to construct 30 school buildings in the initial stages at a cost of Rs. 22,500 and to give a. grant of Rs. 4,000 to 40 primary schools for the requisite materials required for leaching. Improvement of communications at an estimated cost of Rs. 20,000 of which Rs. 10,000 will be spent on constructing 10 approach roads, Rs. 5,000 on 10 sakus, and Rs. 3,000 on miscellaneous items, it also planned. To improve the sanitation and health in the block it is planned to construct 30 wells at a cost of Rs. 15,000 with miscellaneous expenditure amounting to Rs. 5,000.

ROHA BLOCK.

The Development Block at Roha which started functioning in 1957 is at present (1962) in the second stage.

Many measures have been taken to improve the lot of agriculturists in the Block. The various measures undertaken to make more land available for rice cultivation are to give the farmers loans for the purpose, to cultivate more vegetables, to distribute improved variety of seeds, etc.

A veterinary dispensary is located at Roha with veterinary aid centres at Panore and Kolad. A veterinary sub-centre is also constructed at Wanera.

During 1961-62, Rs. 15,000 were distributed amongst 200 scheduled tribe families for the construction of houses. The Government also gave financial assistance for poultry-farming, purchasing agricultural implements and bullocks, etc.

The main primary health centre at Nagothana has three branches, one each at Kolad, Kokban and Ghosala.

In the block, 17 school buildings were constructed. They were given a grant of Rs. 5,000 towards purchase of requisite materials. Adult literacy classes were also conducted in the Block. Under the rural housing scheme 11 families at Kharapati received Rs. 5,000 as the first instalment of loan. By way of kaul tagai Rs. 76,500 were given to 306 persons for repairs to their houses.

There were 82 co-operative societies, including 42 multi-purpose, 20 industrial, seven agricultural and three tenant-farming societies.

KHALAPUR BLOCK.

The Development Block at Khalapur formed part of Thana-Kolaba-Karjat project from October 1, 1952 to September 30, 1956. From October 1, 1956 to March 31, 1958, it was working as a post-intensive Block. It was converted into second and third stage Block, respectively, from April 4, 1958 and October 1, 1961.

Of the total area of 1,00,483 acres in the Block, about 20,000 acres are under paddy cultivation. The yield of rice averages 20 to 30 B. maunds per acre. Summer crop of rice is taken on 400 acres of land. Besides, 800 acres are utilized for Nagli and 600 acres for vari along with 1,200 acres which are utilized for the production of rabi crops like val and different pulses, etc. The 2,652 members are distributed among 114 agriculturists' associations. It is also contemplated to increase the production of milk, vegetables and flowers. The only veterinary dispensary in the Block is located at Khalapur.

At Shil and Vasrang small dams have been put across the river Patalganga which receives the tail water from the power-house at Khopoli. Two canals have also been constructed which irrigate about 450 acres of land. The reclamation of land was undertaken and 500 acres of varkas land was converted into rice-growing land. Ten gas plants are working in the Block. Rupees 6,100 have been loaned towards the cashewnut development scheme in the Block.

The construction of school buildings was also undertaken in the Block and 59 schools have been constructed and 12 school buildings have been extended. The construction of six school buildings at Khanar, Nadode, Jambhivli, Khalapur, Jambrung Thakurwadi and Chinchvali Shekin is also proposed.

To improve water-supply, 64 new wells have been constructed and 14 old ones repaired. Construction of five roads and two approach roads has been completed in the block.

A tailoring class is conducted at Khopoli, advantage of which was taken of by ten males and five females. So far Rs. 12,775.72 have been spent on the scheme. Besides, small duration courses in tailoring were conducted at Khalapur, Savaroli, Vavoshi, Khopoli, Saymal and Devnhave through women's associations the benefit of which has been taken by 122 women. A full course of one year's duration was conducted at Chauk. A loan of Rs. 7,400 was given to rural and newly trained tailors for the purchase of sewing machines.

An amount of Rs. 20,900 was spent towards the construction of 35 new houses. For backward classes 10 houses were constructed costing Rs. 7,500. At Koyna Jambruk 45 families received Rs. 2,000 each for house construction.

There are 23 agricultural credit, multi-purpose and service societies in the block with a membership of 3,587 and a share capital of Rs. 2,22,165. It has supplied credit to the tune of Rs. 4,31,500 of which 82 per cent, has already been recovered. All the villages in the block have been covered by these co-operatives. Besides, there were various types of other societies as well.

POLADPUR BLOCK.

The pre-extension Block was started at Poladpur from April 1, 1960. Rupees 6,000 have been sanctioned for the Block. Of these Rs. 2,900 have been spent on agricultural development.

There are 24 co-operative societies in the Block with a share capital of Rs. 16,000. These societies have provided credit to the tune of Rs. 51,000.

Under the local development scheme construction of seven roads was undertaken of which five have been completed and two are under way. Under the paddy pilot scheme Rs. 42,000 have been distributed to the agriculturists as loans.

During the year 1962 construction of 15 school buildings estimated to cost Rs. 36,000 was under way. About Rs. 43,000 were to be spent to improve water-supply to the population. It was proposed to open five libraries and supply requisite materials to schools and gymnasia. The schemes for the encouragement of village handicrafts were proposed to be undertaken under the guidance of Khadi and Village Industries Commission.

ALIBAG BLOCK.

This Block inaugurated on April 1, 1960 has so far completed survey reports of 204 revenue villages in the Block along with the consolidated report. It has selected some progressive agriculturists from the Block and has given them training in intensive and improved methods of agriculture. The plans for the improved agriculture have been prepared for all the villages in the Block. It has so far distributed improved seeds of rice, 392 B. maunds; of Val, 20 B. maunds; of grams, 5 B. maunds and of Lakshmi cotton, 25 lbs. The Block arranged 102 demonstrations and dug 793 compost pits. Chemical and green manures have been distributed on an extensive scale. The betel-nut in Revdanda and Chaul divisions was affected by Kola disease. To check the disease bordeaux mixture was spread on 42 acres and gardens covering 161 acres were cleaned. The Block made arrangements through Revdanda village panchayat to supply preventive medicines where the disease persisted. There is one agricultural farm and one nursery farm at Mauje-Veshvi in the Block under the control of Agriculture Department.

In the Block 133 agricultural unions have been established with a membership of 2,120. A taluka agricultural union has also been established on October 28, 1961. In 1962 there were 23 youth asso-ciations, 8 drama associations, 9 Bhajan associations, 2 associations for discussions on different topics and 11 women's associations in the Block. The department had distributed 1,980 lbs. of cashew-nut seed which was spread over 100 acres of land for the maintenance of which a loan of Rs. 4,000 was also granted. Grafting of alphonso mangoes was done on 190 ordinary mango trees. Improved variety of Indian cherry plum (Bor) was also grafted on 250 ordinary trees. In the Block, were also distributed many plants of betel-nut, mangoes, coconut and lemons for grafting purposes. There were 100 primary schools and eight middle schools in the Block. Buildings were constructed for 12 primary schools. In the Block social education classes were conducted in 88 villages. Four villages which were successful in eradicating illiteracy completely were rewarded. In 1960-61, 41 local development schemes were under way of which 27 were completed. Of the total expenditure of Rs. 1,72,000 on these works, Rs. 87,580 were contributed by the village populace by way of shramadan.

PEN BLOCK.

This Block which started functioning from October 2, 1960 has surveyed all the villages in its jurisdiction and the compilation of a" consolidated report was under way, in 1962. Plans for improvement of agriculture were prepared for all the villages in the Block and 230 agriculturists were selected and were given training in improved agricultural methods. Two hundred and thirty-six pits for the preparation of manures have been dug in the Block. Chemical and green fertilizers have been extensively used in the Block. To show to the agriculturists the improvement in the crop yield, 15 demonstrations were also con-ducted. Forty-one youth associations have been established. All the villages in the Block have been covered by 48 co-operative societies in the district-. Cashewnut was planted on 3 acres of land. Cashewnut seed was also distributed. Many local development schemes were undertaken in the Block. School buildings were constructed at Chole and Kodoli. An approach road was under construction joining Mauje Tarankhop, a village at a distance of four miles from Bombay-Konkan-Goa State Highway.

In 1962-63 it was proposed to take up the construction of school buildings at Ambivli, Shedoshi, Khartombi, Nidhanti, Tarankhop, Tilore, Vashikali, Gagotekh, Shehi, Jamboshi, Pabal, Tenwale, Khar-pale and Balavali.

SUDHAGAD BLOCK.

Like other blocks, steps were taken in this Block too, to improve agricultural production. Many demonstrations were given in the use of improved agricultural implements and seeds. Crop competitions were held at village level and taluka level wherein 150 agriculturists participated at the village level competitions.

A veterinary dispensary is situated at the taluka headquarters with two sub-centres.

For the amelioration of backward class population, 43 houses for adivasis (scheduled tribes) and 2 for harijans (scheduled castes) have been constructed and five are under construction. Harijanwadi has been established at Pali with samskar kendras at Kumbharshet, Dahigaon and Parali.

Construction of 61 rooms for housing schools was undertaken, of which 46 have been completed. The grant-in-aid was given to 17 schools. A dispensary and three sub-centres along with primary health centre in the block treated the sick. Three approach roads were under construction. Twenty-four new wells were constructed and 15 old ones repaired. In the Block two pumps were supplied, which have resulted in doubling crops on 15 acres of land and also made cultivation of vegetables possible. A tailoring class attended by 16 males was conducted. The number of persons learning carpentry and black-smithy stood at 14.

The number of social education classes conducted in the Block was 20. Fifty-five youth associations, 28 bhajan associations and 27 women's associations were formed in the Block.

URAN BLOCK.

The' Uran Block started functioning on October 29, 1960. The work regarding village survey has been completed in all the 69 villages in the Block. Rice cultivation on 4,500 acres has been undertaken by 40 agriculturists' associations (shetkari sangh) in the district. Bunding was done on 1,000 acres. Tagai loan of Rs. 1,000 has been distributed in the Block. From the Block were selected 42 agriculturists who were given training in agriculture on scientific basis.

The improved variety of seeds of rice (72 B. maunds) and cashewnut (650 lbs.) were distributed in the Block. Cashewnut was planted over 500 acres. Compost-making was also undertaken in the Block and 1,124 compost pits were dug. Demonstrations and crop competitions were held. A competitors from the Block secured second prize at the district level competitions and 133 agriculturists participated in the village level competitions. Seventy wells irrigated 350 acres of land.

The work regarding rural health and sanitation has also been done in the Block. Five buildings housing schools have been constructed. Roads measuring ten miles have been completed to improve road communications in the Block.

There were 40 agriculturists' associations (shetkari sangh), 27 bhajan associations, 27 youth associations and three women's associations in the Block. Nine libraries catered to the needs of the readers in the Block. As many as fifteen adult literacy classes helped to eradicate illiteracy in the Block.

The Block has made great progress in small savings too. The amount invested in small savings in the Block was about Rs. 23,000.

Much progress has been made in the co-operative movement in the Block. Especially the working of multi-purpose co-operative society at Mauje Sarade is so well that it has secured two prizes for efficient working. The number of co-operative societies, which was 30 on October 2, 1969, that is, before the functioning of the Block, rose to 40 by August, 1962. Its field of activity was also extended to 42 villages in 1962, from 22 villages in 1960. The number of members rose from 4,293 in 1960, to 6,014 in 1962. This has also resulted in augmenting the share capital of the co-operatives in the Block. The share capital of co-operatives in the Block was Rs. 4,21,393 in 1962 as against Rs. 3,91,284 in 1960.

With the increase in number of co-operative societies and their membership it was obvious that the supply of credit by these societies should also increase. These societies, provided short-term credit of Rs. 1,26,155 in 1962 as against that of Rs. 42,103 in 1960. In 1962 they provided credit to the tune of Rs. 30,118 for Japanese method of paddy cultivation.

MHASLA BLOCK.

The pre-extension Block was started at Mhasla on April 1, 1959, which was converted into first stage Block on October 2, 1960, and subsequently into Development Block on April 1, 1961.

In the survey of the area undertaken it was found that there is much scope in the region for the development of fruit-gardening and work in that respect was undertaken and 52 agriculturists were given loans of Rs. 26,900. Grafting of 5,000 mango trees was done on 123 acres. The cultivation of cashewnut was also undertaken and it was planted on 1,250 acres for which purpose Rs. 5,250 were distributed amongst 23 agriculturists. The grafts of Sapodilla-plum (chiku) (120) and fresh lemon (200) were also distributed amongst the members of the agriculturists' association (shetkari sangh).

The conversion of varkas land into cultivable land is the major task undertaken in the Block and 450 agriculturists received Rs. 1,98,985 as loan. The experiment of growing Lakshmi cotton also proved successful. Chemical and other fertilizers were distributed in the Block. All the 70 villages in the Block were covered by 64 agriculturists' associations with a membership of 1,349. A taluka agriculturists' association was also established. In the kharif rice crop competition 301 agriculturists took part at village level and 25 at the taluka level. The district level competitions were also held. Experiments were undertaken for the production of more vegetables also. A branch veterinary dispensary was located in the Block along with two sub-centres. Encouragement was given to poultry farming. Loans were given to agriculturists for the purchase of milch cattle. An experiment in fish farming was carried out at Gondghar tank. There were two District Board dispensaries alongwith a Government dispensary at Mhasla. For the supply of drinking water seven wells were constructed.

There were 67 (56 Marathi and 11 Urdu) schools in the taluka with five basic schools. The construction of 13 schools was completed and 6 were under way. Under the schemes of supplying school requisites, Rs. 4,000 were collected by the people and 46 schools were provided with the necessary requisites. Basic craft schools in carpentry and cardboard making were proposed to be opened at those villages.

There were many institutions working for the improvement of the people such as youth associations, bhajan associations, women's associations, etc. Eighty-eight adult education classes provided education to 775 adults. By the end of March, 1962, 900 adults were given education.

In 1961 the number of co-operative societies in the Block stood at 26, comprising 21 service co-operatives, one weaving co-operative, one leather workers' co-operative, one taluka development board and two neera societies. These societies covered 70 villages.

The total length of roads constructed in the Block was 12 miles and all the work was done by way of Shramadan. Seventeen radio sets were installed in the Block.

APPENDIX II

POPULATION FIGURES—1961 CENSUS

RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION, DISTRICT KOLABA, 1961

Taluka or Peta

Rural

Urban.

Total

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

1.

Alibag

51,544

56,581

8,234

7,915

59,778

64,496

2.

Karjat

37,973

35,726

7,324

6,265

45,297

41,991

3.

Khalapur

27,493

25,883

--

--

27,493

25,883

4.

Mahad

48,837

56,219

5,699

5,384

54,536

61,603

5.

Mangaon

58,407

65,963

--

--

58,407

65,963

6.

Mhasla

16,712

22,186

--

--

16,712

22,186

7.

Murud

16,358

18,040

4,930

5,125

21,288

23,165

8.

Panvel

49,013

48,235

9,528

8,602

57,541

56,837

9.

Pen

36,239

37,413

4,975

4,574

41,214

41,987

10.

Poladpur

17,903

20,850

--

--

17,903

20,850

11.

Roha

35,599

36,496

3,864

3,689

39,463

40,185

12.

Shrivardhan

19,141

25,336

5,001

5,343

24,142

30,679

13.

Sudhagad

21,018

20,776

--

--

21,018

20,776

14.

Uran

23,381

22,852

5,361

4,868

28,742

27,720

District Total

459,618

492,556

54,916

51,765

514,534

544,321

AREA, HOUSES AND INMATES, 1961 URBAN AND RURAL, KOLABA DISTRICT

Taluka or Peta

 

Area in sq. miles

Number of houses

Number of house-holds

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(1)

Alibag

5.7

190.2

3,328

20,890

3,385

22 015

(2)

Karjat

7.8

233.7

2,665

12,527

2,844

13,889

(3)

Khalapur

--

156.8

--

9,334

--

10,480

(4)

Mahad

1.6

310.7

2,045

18,088

2,136

21,090

(5)

Mangaon

--

368.6

--

21,496

--

25,565

(6)

Mhasla

--

128.5

--

7,816

--

8,577

(7)

Murud

4.8

128.4

1,835

6,577

1,855

6,939

(6)

Panvel

4.7

210.6

3,505

16,785

3,548

18,136

(9)

Pen

3.8

195.8

1,867

13,618

1,913

14,888

(10)

Poladpur

--

146.8

--

7,925

--

8,162

(11)

Roha

8.0

250.3

1,449

12,663

1,491

14,882

(12)

Shrivardhan

4.2

100.4

1,821

8,123

1,979

9,651

(13)

Sudhagad

--

175.7

--

7,539

--

8,385

(14)

Uran

0.8

74.4

2,049

7,533

2,081

8,861

District Total

41.4

2,670.9

20,564

170,914

21,232

191,520

continued.

Taluka or Peta

Total number of persons enumerated (including inmates of institutions and houseless persons)

Persons

Males

Females

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

(1)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(1)

Alibag

16,149

108,125

8,234

51,454

7,915

56,581

(2)

Karjat

13,589

73,699

7,324

37,973

6,265

35,726

(3)

Khalapur

--

53,376

--

27,493

--

25,883

(4)

Mahad

11,083

105,056

5,699

48,837

5,384

56,219

(5)

Mangaon

--

124,370

--

58,407

--

65,963

(6)

Mhasla

--

38,898

--

16,712

--

22,186

(7)

Murud

10,055

34,398

4,930

16,358

5,125

18,040

(6)

Panvel

18,130

97,248

9,528

49,013

8,602

48,235

(9)

Pen

9,549

73,652

4,975

36,239

4,574

37,413

(10)

Poladpur

--

38,753

--

17,903

--

20,850

(11)

Roha

7,553

72,095

3,864

35,599

3,639

36,496

(12)

Shrivardhan

10,344

44,477

5,001

19,141

5,343

25,336

(13)

Sudhagad

--

41,794

--

21,018

--

20,776

(I4)

Uran

10,229

46,233

5,361

23,381

4,868

22,852

District Total

106,681

952,174

54,916

159,618

51,765

492,556

AGE AND CIVIL CONDITION, KOLABA DISTRICT, 1961

Age Group

Married

Unmarried

Widowed and divorced or Separated

Unspecified Status

Males

Females

Males

Females

Male's

Females

Males

--

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

0—9

--

--

165,305

165,399

--

--

--

--

10—14

998

6,552

059,981

48,147

9

46

37

25

15—19

6,516

30,974

31,464

13,244

51

375

6

20

20—24

20,838

45,494

14,319

2,391

326

876

8

24

25—29.

33,262

46,171

5,986

458

685

1,703

18

19

30—34

29,886

35,174

3,308

174

1,013

2,668

9

16

35—39

28,901

27;82'2

945

92

1,283

4,050

13

7

40—44

22,093

20,305

587

70

1,495

5,757

7

5

45—49

20,453

15,495

747

23

1,952

7,503

14

4

50-54

16,516

9,533

281

34

2,472

9,297

6

11

55—59

12,460

5,300

173

17

2,405

8,496

.8

3

60—64

9,315

3,271

110

11

2,907

10,350

8

5

65—69

4,579

1,427

63

30

1,629

5,416

1

1

70 and-above

5,639

1,162

65

24

3,184

8,681

6

4

Age not stated

25

16

159

143

4

6

4

--

All Ages (Total)

211,481

248,696

283,493

230,257

19,415

65,224

145

144

POPULATION PRINCIPALLY ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE, 1961,
KOLABA DISTRICT

Livelihood Classes

Males

Females

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1) Cultivators

160,063

169,504

(2) Cultivating labourers and their dependants

26,175

27,858

NUMBER OF PERSONS PRINCIPALLY ENGAGED IN TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS, 1961, KOLABA DISTRICT

Transport

Air

Railway

Road

Water

Post and Telegraph

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Persons

7

1,947

3,092

2,392

488

NUMBER OF PERSONS PRINCIPALLY ENGAGED IN TRADE, 1961, KOLABA DISTRICT

Category of Trade

Number of persons engaged in

(1)

(2)

(1)

Textiles

810

(2)

Skins and leather

13

(3)

Wood

96

(4)

Pottery, bricks and tiles (including building materials)

24

(5)

Chemical Products

65

(6)

Food-stuffs

6,674

(7)

Clothing and Toilet articles

170

(8)

Furniture

74

(9)

Other building materials

1

(10)

Means of Transport and storage equipments

8

POPULATION BY RELIGION, 1961, KOLABA DISTRICT

Religion

Males

Females

(1)

(2)

(3)

Hindus

458,825

483,135

Sikhs

83

44

Jains

2,088

1,649

Buddhists

21,925

24,220

Zoroastrians

67

53

Muslims

29,567

33,433

Christians

842

676

Jews

1,124

1,099

Others

13

12

Total

514,534

544,321

APPENDIX III
CONVERSION FACTORS

LENGTH

TEMPERATURE

1 inch= 2.54 cehtimetres

T Fahrenheit= 9/5 (T centigrade) + 32

1 foot= 30.48 centimetres

METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

1yard= 91.44 centimetres

1 mile= 1.61 kilometres

LENGTH

1 nautical mile (UK)= 1853.18 metres

10 millimetres= 1 centimetre

1 nautical mile (international)= 1852 metres

AREA

100 centimetres= 1 metre

1 square foot= 0.093 square metre

1,000 metres= 1 kilometre

1 square yard= 0.836 square metre

1,852 metres= 1 nautical mile (international)

1 acre= 0.405 hectare

 

VOLUME

AREA

1 cubic foot= 0.023 cubic metre

100 square millimetres= 1 square centimetre

CAPACITY

10,000 square centimetres= 1 square metre

       or centiare

1 gallon (Imperial)= 4.55 litres

100 square metres= 1 are

1 seer (80 tolas)= 0.937 litre

100 ares= 1 hectare

1 Madras measure= 1.77 litres

100 hectares or 1,000,000 square metres= 1 square kilometre

WEIGHT

 

1 tola= 11.66 grams

VOLUME

1 chhatak= 58.32 grams

1,000,000 cubic centimetres= 1 cubic metre

1 seer= 933.10 grams

 

1 maund= 37.32 kilograms

CAPACITY

1 palam= 34.99 grams

1000 millilitres= 1 litre

1 seer= (24 tolas)= 279.93 grams

1000 litres= 1 kilolitre

1 viss= 1.40 kilograms

 

1 maund (Madras)= 11.20 kilograms

WEIGHTS

1 candy= 223.94 kilograms

1000 milligrams= 1 gram

1 ounce= 28.35 grams

1 000 grams— 1 kilogram

1 pound= 453.59 grams

100 kilograms= 1 quintal

1 hundredweight= 50.80 kilograms

1000 kilograms= 1 tonne

1 ton= 1016.05 kilograms

200 milligrams= 1 carat

ABBREVIATIONS FOR METRIC UNITS

(1) Decimal Multipes and Submultiples

Prefix

Value in Terms of Unit

Abbreviation

Denomination Value Abbreviation

kilo

1000

k

(4) Volume

centi

0.01 (10-2)

c

cubic centimetre

cm3

cm3

cubic millimetre

mm3

mm3

milli

0.001(10-3)

m

(5) Length

micro

0.000001 (10.6)

U

kilometre

1000 m

km

(2) Weights

 

metre

1 m

m

Denomination

Value

Abbreviation

centimetre

1 cm

cm

millimetre

1 mm

mm

tonne

1000 kg

t

micron

1/1000 mm

um

or—10-3 mm

quintal

1000 kg

q

(6) Area

kilogram

1 kg

kg

square kilometres

1 000 000m2

km2

gram

1 g

g

square metre

1 m2

m2

milligram

1 mg

mg

 square centimetre

1 cm2

cm2

carat

200 mg

c

  square millimetre

1 mm2

 mm2

(3) Capacity

(7) Land Measure

kilolitre

1000 1

1

are

100 m2

a

litre

1 1

1

hectare

100 a

ha

millimetre

1 ml

ml

contiare

m2

ca

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